Roll over names of designated regions on the map above for descriptions of the role of each in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. North America The North American mainland played a relatively minor role in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Its ports sent out less than five percent of all known voyages, and its slave markets absorbed less than four percent of all slaves carried off from Africa. An intra-American trade in slaves — originating in the Caribbean - supplied additional slaves, however.
You can visit his blog at RooshV. On Guerrilla Warfare is a collection of essays, speeches, and communiques by Mao Tse Tung, who ushered in communism in China after decades of fighting as a heavy underdog starting in the early 20th century.
What drew me to this book is to learn exactly how he did it. How did he go from being a member of the rag-tag Chinese communist party with a small membership to eventually overthrowing the Western-backed Chiang Kai-shek after World War 2?
The answer lies in time, extraordinary persistence, and genius. The below excerpts highlight the best components of his strategy.
Overall strategy …strategy must be one of gradual advance. In such a period, the worst thing in military affairs is to divide our forces for an adventurous advance, and the worst thing in local work distributing land, establishing political power, expanding the Party and organizing local armed forces is to scatter our personnel and neglect to lay a solid foundation in the central districts.
Hence they can endure the hardships of the bitter struggle without complaint. Militarily, the way to do so is resolutely to wage quick-decision offensive warfare on exterior lines, to launch guerrilla warfare in the rear of the enemy and so secure overwhelming local superiority and initiative in many campaigns of mobile and guerrilla warfare.
To the present day, all weapons are still an extension of the spear and the shield. The bomber, the machine-gun, the long-range gun and poison gas are developments of Mao zedong and the chinese genocide essay spear, while the air-raid shelter, the steel helmet, the concrete fortification and the gas mask are developments of the shield.
The offensive, moreover, must take the form of surprise attacks, and to expose ourselves by ostentatiously parading our forces is even less permissible in guerrilla warfare than in regular warfare.
From the fact that the enemy is strong and we are weak it necessarily follows that, in guerrilla operations in general even more than in regular warfare, battles must be decided quickly, though on some occasions guerrilla fighting may be kept up for several days, as in an assault on a small and isolated enemy force cut off from help.
What we can ask for is generals who are brave and sagacious and who normally win their battles in the course of a war, generals who combine wisdom with courage.
To become both wise and courageous one must acquire a method, a method to be employed in learning as well as in applying what has been learned. The contest of strength is not only a contest of military and economic power, but also a contest of human power and morale. Winning hearts and minds Apart from the role played by the Party, the reason why the Red Army has been able to carry on in spite of such poor material conditions and such frequent engagements is its practice of democracy.
The officers do not beat the men; officers and men receive equal treatment, soldiers are free to hold meetings and to speak out; trivial formalities have been done away with; and the accounts are open for all to inspect.
All this gives great satisfaction to the soldiers. Military tactics …the concentration of forces to fight a numerically inferior, equal or slightly superior enemy force has often led to victory. To extend stable base areas, employ the policy of advancing in waves; when pursued by a powerful enemy, employ the policy of circling around.
Arouse the largest numbers of the masses in the shortest possible time and by the best possible methods. We suffered every time we did not concentrate our troops… […] …creating misconceptions among the enemy and springing surprise attacks on him— mean transferring the uncertainties of war to the enemy while securing the greatest possible certainty for ourselves and thereby gaining superiority, the initiative and victory.
Excellent organization of the masses is the prerequisite for attaining all this.
Calculated retreat …the object of retreat is to induce the enemy to make mistakes or to detect his mistakes. One must realize that an enemy commander, however wise, cannot avoid making some mistakes over a relatively long period of time, and hence it is always possible for us to exploit the openings he leaves us.
Flexible warfare In studying the laws for directing wars that occur at different historical stages, that differ in nature and that are waged in different places and by different nations, we must fix our attention on the characteristics and development of each, and must oppose a mechanical approach to the problem of war.
Many people appear impressive when discoursing on military science in classrooms or in books, but when it comes to actual fighting, some win battles and others lose them. Frequent smaller losses are better than big catrostrophes The same holds true on the question of bringing damage on the people.
If you refuse to let the pots and pans of some households be smashed over a short period of time, you will cause the smashing of the pots and pans of all the people to go on over a long period of time.
If you are afraid of unfavourable short-term political repercussions, you will have to pay the price in unfavourable long-term political repercussions. Counter-offensives To prepare for a counter-offensive, we must select or create conditions favourable to ourselves but unfavourable to the enemy, so as to bring about a change in the balance of forces, before we go on to the stage of the counter-offensive.
In the light of our past experience, during the stage of retreat we should in general secure at least two of the following conditions before we can consider the situation as being favourable to us and unfavourable to the enemy and before we can go over to the counter-offensive.
Politics Historically, all reactionary forces on the verge of extinction invariably conduct a last desperate struggle against the revolutionary forces, and some revolutionaries are apt to be deluded for a time by this phenomenon of outward strength but inner weakness, failing to grasp the essential fact that the enemy is nearing extinction while they themselves are approaching victory.
The sole purpose of this army is to stand firmly with the Chinese people and to serve them whole-heartedly. The distribution of material things in the Red Army must be more or less equal, as in the case of equal pay for officers and men, because this is required by the present circumstances of the struggle.
But absolute equalitarianism beyond reason must be opposed because it is not required by the struggle; on the contrary, it hinders the struggle.The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database has information on almost 36, slaving voyages that forcibly embarked over 10 million Africans for transport to the Americas between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries.
An insurgency, or what Mao Zedong referred to as a war of revolutionary nature, guerrilla warfare can be conceived of as part of a continuum. On the low end are small-scale raids, ambushes and attacks. In ancient times these actions were often associated with smaller tribal policies fighting a larger empire, as in the struggle of Rome against the Spanish tribes for over a century.
Literature and Terrorism In an age of terror, how does literature help us transcend our reality, lend perspective to our confusion by pulling us into the past and other cultures, and give expression to our anguish and fear through catharsis?
Information speech topics about working out history topics for verbal or essay writing. Historical figures, events, periods and movements, and timelines are very good sources for authentic talks.
An NYRB Classics Original Simon Leys is a Renaissance man for the era of globalization. A distinguished scholar of classical Chinese art and literature and one of the first Westerners to recognize the appalling toll of Mao’s Cultural Revolution, Leys also writes with unfailing intelligence, seriousness, and bite about European art, literature, history, and politics and is an unflinching.
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