The first type of animal abuse is passive which can be defined as neglect or failing to take care or an animal and keep it in good health and well-being. Abandonment or neglect is another example of passive abuse Animal Hoarding is when a person has an abnormally large amount of pets in a small area.
Capturing and harming protected animal species Hunting out of season Smuggling and selling exotic animal species Puppy mills Some of these related problems are covered in other guides in this series, all of which are listed at the end of this guide. For the most up-to-date listing of current and future guides, see www.
General Description of the Problem Animal cruelty includes many kinds of mistreatment, from temporarily failing to provide essential care to the malicious killing or repeated torturing of an animal. Every state defines animal cruelty differently, both in terms of the specific actions that are prohibited and the categories of animals that are protected.
For example, hunting is exempted from animal cruelty laws and livestock are not protected, even though in both cases the animals are killed and quite often suffer.
Laws in some states protect wild animals from frivolous harm e. Animal cruelty cases tend to span the jurisdictions of several state and local agencies and departments, and the agency officially responsible for handling animal cruelty cases varies. Some jurisdictions have sophisticated programs within animal welfare organizations e.
They may be called animal cruelty enforcement agents, humane law enforcement agents, cruelty investigators, or animal control officers, and while they may have the legal authority to investigate and enforce animal cruelty laws, the public often grants them less legitimacy than police.
In places without local animal welfare organizations, police may be solely responsible for enforcing all animal-protection laws. While some cases will be arduous, involving lengthy investigations, search warrants, and complex crime scenes, most cases of animal cruelty are not particularly complicated.
Particularly in cases of simple neglect, police who identify the signs of animal cruelty can offer information, suggestions for improving animal care, or warnings, which will usually rectify the situation before a serious tragedy occurs. Neglect occurs when an owner fails to provide the animal with adequate food, water, shelter, or veterinary care.
Neglect is the most common type of animal cruelty. Such neglect results in illness and starvation and may even lead to the death of the animals. Physical abuse refers to intentional acts that cause the animal pain, suffering, or death.
Abusive behaviors include beating, burning, choking or suffocating, dragging, drowning, hanging, kicking or stomping, mutilating, poisoning, shooting, stabbing, and throwing, among others. These signs may include the following: Doing so would be very difficult, because enforcement authority is scattered across thousands of state and local agencies, laws vary across states, and standardized reporting structures have not been developed.
The two major efforts to collect data on the prevalence of animal mistreatment rely primarily on media reports, rather than enforcement records, as the source. Over half of the respondents stated they reported the incident to a law enforcement or humane organization.
One study estimated that approximately 5, cases of hoarding are reported each year, with roughly 40 animals involved in each case. As a result, the public may not fully understand the prevalence and nature of animal cruelty.
It discontinued the project because of excessive demands on staff Lockwood While the website includes a search engine and crime-mapping capabilities, it includes only those cases with a media reference or that proceeded to court. As of April 18,the database included over 17, cases in six countries.
Harms Caused by Animal Cruelty The most obvious harm caused by animal cruelty is the pain and suffering endured by the animal. In contrast to what is often presented by the media, happy endings in cases of physical cruelty are rare: In addition to the animal suffering inflicted in even the least sensational cases, the more complicated hoarding cases also generate significant public health concerns.
Homes of hoarders are generally filthy, with an accumulation of animal feces and urine on the floor, sometimes several inches deep. The resulting ammonia gas creates toxic air. Utilities and major appliances usually do not work, and most of the basic activities for a functional and sanitary household e.
Carcasses of dead animals are often found in hoarding locations, many of which are eventually condemned. Groups of researchers in both the United States and the United Kingdom assert that people who harm or kill animals are at high risk of interpersonal violence.
Further, they claim that victims of child abuse are likely to harm animals and are more likely to be violent toward humans as they mature. Most of these studies examined the prevalence of animal cruelty among incarcerated, violent offenders.
However, citing methodological flaws in the research and overly broad generalizations, a few researchers believe the link between animal cruelty and interpersonal violence has been overstated. However, cruelty to animals, alone, is not a particularly influential predictor of interpersonal violence, and animal cruelty may precede or follow other types of violent offenses.
Animal Victim Characteristics Dogs and cats are the most frequent victims of neglect and physical cruelty, although birds, hamsters, gerbils, rabbits, and reptiles are sometimes abused. Most victims of animal cruelty are pets, not wild animals. Hoarding cases usually involve dogs and cats and most involve multiple species.
Although a few studies have shown that a small proportion of violent adult criminals were chronic animal abusers as children, most children who are cruel to animals commit mild, infrequent acts of cruelty and eventually grow out of it. Males commit intentional acts of cruelty toward animals more often than females.
They may also express anger about other situations by abusing the animal.Pelvic bones may become prominent. Also there will be an obvious waist and abdominal tuck. 5. Ideal is when an animals ribs are palpable without excess fat covering them (Animal ).
The animals abdomen seems tucked up when viewed from side. 7. Heavy is when an animals ribs are palpable with difficulty and the animals has a heavy fat cover. Animal cruelty happens all over the world, but many countries have laws in place to try and combat the problem.
Some are complex while others are . Animal Cruelty: Its Background and Effects This assignment was one of the toughest assignments of the whole semester.
This literature review talks about the four main question that were listed which are: What is considered animal cruelty?, What causes animal cruelty?, What legislative measures regulate animal cruelty?, What effect(s) does animal cruelty have on society?.
Hackett & Uprichard Animal abuse and child maltreatment Contents Acknowledgements i Index of tables iv Index of figures iv Introduction: The context to animal cruelty and child maltreatment 1 Part 1 Critical review of the literature about child welfare and animal.
Animal abuse, serious problem. But do we care enough to help them? So many websites about reporting animal cruelty and what it could look like, too. But why JUST report it?
Do something more about it, if you care for those poor animals that TRUST those people. But then, what happens?
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